School Choice Policies

Charter School Choice

Does the state have charter schools?

Are for-profit charter schools or management companies allowed?


Michigan charter schools must organize as non-profits.

The board of directors of a public school academy may enter into a management agreement with an educational management organization to carry out the operations of the public school academy.

An educational management organization is defined as "an entity that enters into a management agreement with a public school academy." An entity is defined as "a partnership, nonprofit or business corporation, or any other association, corporation, trust, or other legal entity."

House Resolution Joint B (2019) would "prohibit public schools from being operated on a for-profit basis or by a for-profit entity."

MCL 380.502(1)

MCL 380.503c Management agreement with educational management organization; definitions.

Is there a cap on the number of charter schools?

Did not find-

We did not find information about caps on charter schools in Michigan statutes. Education Commission of the States states that Michigan does not have caps on charters. Additionally, a policy expert stated that there is no cap on the number of charter schools in Michigan.

Education Commission of the States 50-State Comparison

Are charters required to provide transportation for any students?


"In general, a charter school is considered a local school district and is responsible for following the same legislative guidelines for transporting students as a local traditional school district, except that charter schools are not considered districts under RSC 380.1321, as they have no resident students. Therefore, a charter school may charge for transportation, contract with a 3rd party vendor who charges for this service or opts out of providing transportation."

Michigan Charter Schools - Questions and Answers

Can charter schools employ uncertified teachers?


A public school academy shall use certificated teachers according to state board rule. However, a public school academy authorized by a state public university or community college may use uncertified individuals to teach.

MCL 380.505: Use of certificated teachers; use of non certificated individuals by public school academy run by state public university or community college; report of new or revised teaching techniques.

Virtual School Choice

Do state statutes allow for full-time virtual schools?


Michigan statutes allow for virtual charter schools.

MCL 380.553a: Cyber school.

Are virtual schools required to track attendance?


"The cyber school shall track a pupil's participation through attendance in the educational program offered by the cyber school for the proportionate number of instructional hours from the date of enrollment of the pupil."

MCL 380.553a (2b) Cyber school.

Do virtual schools have to comply with state teacher certification requirements?


"A requirement that a teacher who holds appropriate certification according to state board rule or who is engaged to teach under section 1233b will be responsible for all of the following for each course in which a pupil is enrolled:
(i) Improving learning by planned instruction.
(ii) Diagnosing the pupil's learning needs.
(iii) Assessing learning, assigning grades, and determining advancement.
(iv) Reporting outcomes to administrators and parents or legal guardians."

MCL 380.553a (2a) Cyber school.
MCL 380.1233b Teaching of certain courses by noncertificated, nonendorsed teacher; requirements; effect of ability to engage certificated, endorsed teacher; waiving student teaching.

Private School Choice

Does the state have voucher programs?


No voucher programs found.

EdChoice School Choice in America

Does the state have educational expense tuition tax credits or deductions?


No educational expense tax credits or deductions found.

EdChoice School Choice in America

Can students use vouchers to attend religious schools?

Not Applicable

Is there a cap on the number of students or private schools participating in voucher programs?

Not Applicable

Are voucher students in private schools required to take any standardized tests?

Not Applicable

Can private schools be removed from voucher programs based on performance?

Not Applicable

Are private schools in voucher programs required to provide transportation?

Not Applicable

Interdistrict School Choice

Does the state have interdistrict choice programs?


"Except as otherwise provided in this section, a district shall determine whether or not it will accept applications for enrollment by nonresident applicants residing within the same intermediate district for the next school year."

MCL 388.1705 (2): Counting nonresident pupils in membership; application for enrollment; procedures.

Are receiving schools or districts required to provide transportation to any students?


"This section does not require a district to provide transportation for a nonresident pupil enrolled in the district under this section or for a resident pupil enrolled in another district under this section. However, at the time a nonresident pupil enrolls in the district, a district shall provide to the pupil's parent or legal guardian information on available transportation to and from the school in which the pupil enrolls."

MCL 388.1705 (17) Counting nonresident pupils in membership; application for enrollment; procedures.

Page last updated: December 2020

Click here to download the State Policy Spreadsheet. Click here to download the State Policy Map Data Memo.

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We’re always looking for feedback. To get in touch with our team, please email comments or questions to info@reachcentered.org. Thank you!

The State Policy Map provides a snapshot of school choice policy found in laws passed by the legislative bodies, for all 50 states and Washington, D.C., based on information gathered from state statutes in fall 2019; data checks continued through December 2020. Information on this site may not include the most up-to-date policy information. The State Policy Map does not systematically reflect state Department of Education administrative policies, rules, or regulations. All content on this site is provided for informational purposes only. Links to third-party websites are for the user’s convenience; neither REACH nor any affiliated entities endorse the contents of third-party sites.

Note: On June 30, 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Montana's exclusion of religious schools from the state's tax credit scholarship program was unconstitutional (Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue 591). The responses to the question "Can students use vouchers to attend religious schools?" were collected before this ruling and therefore do not reflect any changes resulting from the Espinoza decision.