School Choice Policies

Charter School Choice

Does the state have charter schools?

Are for-profit charter schools or management companies allowed?

Did not find

Is there a cap on the number of charter schools?

Did not find-

We did not find information about caps on charter schools in Virginia statutes. Education Commission of the States states that Virginia does not have caps on charters.

Education Commission of the States 50-State Comparison

Are charters required to provide transportation for any students?


However, a charter must state its plan for transporting its students in its application.

22.1-212.8.B.(23) Charter application.

Can charter schools employ uncertified teachers?


"Professional, licensed education personnel may volunteer for assignment to a public charter school."

§ 22.1-212.13. Employment of professional, licensed personnel

Virtual School Choice

Do state statutes allow for full-time virtual schools?


"'Virtual school program' means a series of online courses with instructional content that (i) is delivered by a multidivision online provider primarily electronically using the Internet or other computer-based methods; (ii) is taught by a teacher primarily from a remote location, with student access to the teacher given synchronously, asynchronously, or both; (iii) is delivered as a part-time or full-time program; and (iv) has an online component with online lessons and tools for student and data management."

22.1-212.23. Definitions

Are virtual schools required to track attendance?

Did not find

Do virtual schools have to comply with state teacher certification requirements?


"Teachers who deliver instruction to students through online courses or virtual school programs shall be licensed by the Board of Education and shall be subject to the requirements of §§ 22.1-296.1, 22.1-296.2, and 22.1-296.4 applicable to teachers employed by a local school board."

22.1-212.26.A. Teachers and administrators of online courses and virtual programs

Private School Choice

Does the state have voucher programs?


No voucher programs found.

EdChoice School Choice in America

Does the state have educational expense tuition tax credits or deductions?


No educational expense tax credits or deductions found.

EdChoice School Choice in America

Can students use vouchers to attend religious schools?

Not Applicable

Is there a cap on the number of students or private schools participating in voucher programs?

Not Applicable

Are voucher students in private schools required to take any standardized tests?

Not Applicable

Can private schools be removed from voucher programs based on performance?

Not Applicable

Are private schools in voucher programs required to provide transportation?

Not Applicable

Interdistrict School Choice

Does the state have interdistrict choice programs?


"'Open enrollment' means a policy adopted and implemented by a local school board to allow any student to enroll in any school within the school division of attendance regardless of the location of the student's residence."

22.1-7.1.D. Open school enrollment policy

Are receiving schools or districts required to provide transportation to any students?


A local school board may require that the parent or guardian provide transportation for the student attending a school other than his assigned school.

22.1-7.1.A.2. Open school enrollment policy.

Page last updated: February 2021

Click here to download the State Policy Spreadsheet. Click here to download the State Policy Map Data Memo.

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The State Policy Map provides a snapshot of school choice policy found in laws passed by the legislative bodies, for all 50 states and Washington, D.C., based on information gathered from state statutes in fall 2019; data checks continued through December 2020. Information on this site may not include the most up-to-date policy information. The State Policy Map does not systematically reflect state Department of Education administrative policies, rules, or regulations. All content on this site is provided for informational purposes only. Links to third-party websites are for the user’s convenience; neither REACH nor any affiliated entities endorse the contents of third-party sites.

Note: On June 30, 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Montana's exclusion of religious schools from the state's tax credit scholarship program was unconstitutional (Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue 591). The responses to the question "Can students use vouchers to attend religious schools?" were collected before this ruling and therefore do not reflect any changes resulting from the Espinoza decision.